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newspapers, and the Asylum supporters of improper practices. The Duke 'declared his desire to resign his office; and it is understood he consents to hold it only until his royal nephew (the Prince Consort) shall be qualified to fill the distinguished and, let me add. not uninfluential station'. Resignation was much in HRH's mind at the time. He had threatened it at Crucefix's appeal: that 'he had been many years the Grand Master, and was willing to continue so, but that if Grand Lodge thought a younger and more active person was necessary, he was ready to retire; that personall ' v it was of no consequence to him; that it had rather detracted from than added to his popularity ; that it gave considerable trouble, but that he was ready to undergo while he held the office'. On this occasion the Marquis of Salisbury declined the nomination, Stevens withdrew it and the Duke of Sussex was re-elected.1

Next year Stevens was the moving spirit in the organisation of a testimonial from the Craft to Dr Crucefix. At the presentation and banquet, 24 November 1841, the Chair was taken by Dr George Ofiver, the well-known masonic author and a frequent contributor to the Review. The consequence was that RW Bro C. T. D'Eyncourt dismissed Dr Oliver from his position as DGM for Lincolnshire, which caused another outcry.2 There is no doubt that the influence behind the PGM's decision was that of the MW Grand Master. The real reason for the attack on these two distinguished brethren was that they were both active propagators of the Higher Degrees.

The Duke of Sussex was head of several of these, and on one occasion spoke of 'his attachment to the principles and determination to maintain the privileges and to provide the well-being of the Order'. 3 The Duke, however, did not pursue an active policy for their advancement and they did not flourish under his rule. It may well be that his inactivity was, in the circumstances, more effective in preserving the Higher Degrees than the uninhibited behaviour of Bros Crucefix and Oliver.

With the approach of the Union of the two Grand Lodges, the Duke of Sussex was exalted into the Royal Arch, April 1810, and in the next month was installed as MEZ of the Supreme Grand Chapter of the Moderns, The Earl of Moira gracefully making way for him.4 At the Duke's instigation, the SGC, in 1813, 'Resolved unanimously that as the Grand Lodge of.England (Moderns) through the MW Grand Master has communicated its Determination to acknowledge the Royal Arch', the MEZ be entrusted with full powers to conclude a union of the SG Chapter with the two Grand Lodges .5 For the Ancients, full recognition of the Royal Arch Degree was a sine qua non of the negotiations, but the universalists, who disliked the Royal Arch as they did the Christian Orders, were able to secure the compromise in the well-known Article II of the Union. There was to be no fourth degree as the Duke had anticipated,' nor was any provision made for the government of the Royal Arch in the new Book of Constitutions. Only after slow progress did the Duke's influence bring about the Union of the two Supreme

1. FQR. 1840, pp 496-9, 202-3; 1841, pp 457-8
AQC, lxxiv. pp 53-70.
The Origin and Progress of the Precptory of St George, No 6. C. Fitzgeraid Matter, pp 42-46.4. Supreme Grand Chapter. Minutes, 17 April. 10 May 1810.
5. Origin of the English Rite. W J. Hughan. ed 3. T. Thorp, p 171,
6. Freemasons Book of the Roy al Arch. B. E Jones. p 111,