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others played notable parts, there is no doubt that the influence of the two Royal Grand Masters was paramount in bringing about the successful result.

To harmonise the ritual and ceremonies, the Lodge of Reconciliation was set up (1813-16), the Grand Master sometimes attending its meetings. The chief obstacle was the Obligation in the First Degree.1 Attention was drawn to it from the Chair and, having himself been obligated as an 'Ancient' at his brother's Installation, 2 and possibly influenced by the judgment of the Swedish Ambassador to Spain at his own installation 3 the Duke agreed to this Obligation being made more severe to meet the wishes of the Atholl Brethren. It having been settled, 'the Ancient 0Bgn of the Ist and 2nd degrees were then repeated, the former from the Throne', both being approved by the Grand Lodge as 'the only pure and genuine Obs. of these Degrees, and which all Lodges dependent on the Grand Lodge shall practice'. 4 Notwithstanding this, and though the decisions of the Lodge of Reconciliation were finally approved by the Grand Lodge on 5 June 1816, they were not prescribed. Nor did the lodge consider the ceremony of a Board of Installed Masters. For this purpose the Duke of Sussex warranted a special lodge in 1827. With some exceptions the extended ceremony of Installation has fallen out of use: indeed, the Grand Secretary characterised it in 1889 as 'irregular'. 5

The Lectures, put into shape by William Preston, to whose beneficence we owe these Prestonian Lectures, were in those days almost as important as the ritual. Opinions differ as to what happened to them at the time of the Union. The Grand Master is said to have ordered that no alteration should be made in the Lectures,6 and there is no mention of them in the records of the Lodges of Promulgation and Reconciliation. Yet some important changes were made in them about that time and the majority view is in favour of attributing these to Dr S. Hemmings, WM of the Lodge of Reconciliation, with other influences in the background. The most important change, and that which caused the greatest disturbance, was the substitution of Moses and Solomon for the two Saints John as the Two Great Parallels of Masonry .7 In 1819 a complaint, endorsed by Peter Gilkes, was made to the Board of General Purposes that Bro Philip Broadfoot and the Lodge of Stability were working Lectures contrary to the stipulations of the Act of Union, they never having been in use in either branch of the Fraternity previous to the Union, and not having received any sanction from Grand Lodge. The complaint was rejected, but the Board decreed that no new Lecture could be used without the consent of the Grand Master or the Grand Lodge. The former laid it down

that so long as the Master of any Lodge observed exactly the Land-Marks of the Craft, he was at liberty to give the Lectures in the language best suited to the character of the Lodge over which he presided . . . that any Master of a Lodge, on visiting another Lodge, and approving of the Lectures delivered therein, is at Liberty to promulgate them from the Chair in his own Lodge, provided he has previously perfected himself in the Instructions of the Master of the aforesaid Lodge. The Grand Lodge concurring in the opinion thus

1, AQC, xxiii. p 261
2, Memorials of the Masonic Union. W. J.
Hughan, ed J. T. Thorp, p 19.
3, AQC. lvi. p 308
4, GL Quarterly Communication, Minutes. 23 August 1815.
5, Dorset Masters Lodge. No 3366, Transactions, 1928-29. pp 19-23 Misc. Lat., NS. ii, pp 123-6
6, FQR.
1843, p 46.
7, Gould, ed Poole. in, 108; AQC, xxiii. pp 260, 274; xli, pp 191, 197-201; Misc. Lat., NS, vi, pp l14-16, 129-132,